This lexicon will help you to understand the different terms related to Polyplus-transfection®.


Bioproduction: A precise definition is available.

Cell line: Population of primary cells that have been immortalized in order to improve their proliferation. The immortalization can be processed by different methods such as infection by the simian virus 40 (SV-40) or through the expression of Telomerase Reverse transcriptase protein (TERT).

Electroporation or Electropermeabilization: Creation of artificial pores in a cellular membrane via an electrical field.

Fluorochrome: Part of a molecule that can absorb wavelength in the UV or visible light and re-emit a part this one. This phenomenon is called fluorescence.

Fluorophore: Substance (molecule) including a fluorochrome.


Gene expression: A precise definition is available.

High throughput screening: Scientific experiment to test a large range of diverse chemical substances in order to identify the most adapted structure for your study.

in vivo delivery: Transfection of nucleic acids into an animal such as mouse, rat, mosquito, ant, etc… Most of the time, in vivo delivery involves a systemic injection or a direct injection into targeted organs.

in vitro transfection: Deliberate delivery of nucleic acids into cells.


Optoporation: Creation of artificial pores in a cellular membrane via an optical system such as lasers.

Plasmidic membrane: selective double lipidic layer that internalize the cytoplasm, organelles and nucleus.

Primary cells: Cultivated Cells directly taken from a living organism.

Protein production: A precise definition is available.

Proteofection: A precise definition is available.

RNA interference: A precise definition is available.

Silencing by RNA interference: Extinction of gene expression. It is a naturally occurring mechanism in a wide variety of organisms. It is nowadays routinely used by scientists for gene function studies. To do so, specific siRNA (small interfering RNA) or miRNA (micro RNA) are transiently transfected into cells.

Stem cell: Undifferentiated cells able to produce an indefinite number of differentiated cells and to regenerate themselves. These cells can be totipotent, pluripotent or multipotent.


Transforming Growth Factor (TGFc or Tumor Growth Factor): Protein involved in different pathways, and overexpressed in different types of cancer. This cytokine is naturally expressed in a latent form by a wide variety of cells, and its overexpression triggers contact inhibition in primary fibroblasts.

Transfection: A precise definition is available.

Transfection efficiency: This can be measured by transfection of a reporter gene such as GFP and determination or the percentage of cells that express the reporter gene. An indirect and related measure of plasmid transfection efficiency is to evaluate the amount of produced protein. For siRNA transfection, fluorescently labeled siRNA can be used to assess transfection efficiency. Silencing efficiency correlates with siRNA transfection efficiency.

Transient gene expression (TGE): Protein Expression following transient transfection of plasmid DNA. The transfected plasmids localize to the nucleus without integrating the genome.

Viral transduction: Process of exogenous nucleic acid incorporation into a cell via a virus vector.

Virus production: A precise definition is available.

Zip nucleic acid (ZNA): A precise definition is available.