• Authors: Wang, Q., Liu, L., Ren, W., Gettie, A., Wang, H., Liang, Q., Shi, X., Montefiori, D. C., Zhou, T., Zhang, L.
  • Year: 2019
  • Journal: Cell Rep 27 2593-2607 e5
  • Applications: in vitro / DNA / FectoPRO
  • Cell type: Expi293F
    Description: Human embryonic kidney Fibroblast
    Known as: Expi 293-F, Expi, HEK-293 Expi


The full-length IgG1 was expressed by co-transfecting paired heavy- and light-chain plasmids at a 1:1 ratio using FectoPRO DNA Transfection Reagent into Expi293 cells and purified 5 days after transfection by affinity chromatography using Protein A columns.


The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) maintains a delicate balance between mediating viral entry and escaping antibody neutralization. Adaptation during transmission of neutralization-sensitive Envs with an "open" conformation remains poorly understood. By passaging a replication-competent simian-human immunodeficiency virus carrying a highly neutralization-sensitive Env (SHIVCNE40) in rhesus macaques, we show that SHIVCNE40 develops enhanced replication kinetics associated with neutralization resistance against antibodies and autologous serum. A gp41 substitution, E658K, functions as the major determinant for these properties. Structural modeling and functional verification indicate that the substitution disrupts an intermolecular salt bridge with the neighboring protomer, thereby promoting fusion and facilitating immune evasion. This effect is applicable across diverse HIV-1 subtypes. Our results highlight the critical role of gp41 in shaping the neutralization profile and the overall conformation of Env during viral adaptation. The unique intermolecular salt bridge could potentially be utilized for rational vaccine design involving more stable HIV-1 envelope trimers.

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